Types of Bond Funds

When building a diversified fixed income portfolio, bond capital may be a very effective strategy. Not only will they provide benefits for example monthly source of income and everyday wages, in addition they offer diversification possibility and expert direction, which means that you don’t have to worry about managing your fixed income investments on a day-to-day basis. Building a portfolio of fixed income funds starts with identifying your investment goals, then understanding how different types of bond funds align with those goals.

When it comes to creating a portfolio that will generate income, there are 3 types of building blocks to consider.

  • Stable and highly liquid investments, such as money market funds, which seek to preserve your initial investment while providing some yield
  • Bond funds that invest primarily in investment-grade securities, offering higher yields than money market funds and less volatility than bond funds investing in high-yield, lower quality securities; typically invest in bonds issued by the U.S. government, government agencies, corporations and/or municipalities
  • Bond funds that invest in high-yield, lower quality securities, which deliver potentially higher returns in exchange for greater risk

Some investors may find all they need in certain broad market funds that meet much or all of these criteria. Others may opt to invest in 2 or 3 funds that together achieve the diversification they seek across different sectors, maturities, credit quality, and yield. What follows is an overview of the various types of bond funds you can choose from.


“Investment-grade bond capital ” is a broad term that encompasses funds that invest in high-quality bonds that have been rated “investment-grade ” by the bond ratings agencies. (Read more about Bond ratings.) These high-quality bonds include those issued by the U.S. Treasury and other government agencies, as well as some corporations. Most mortgage-backed bonds are also rated investment grade.

Types of funds that fall into this broad category include:

  • Government bond funds. Government bond funds invest primarily in bonds issued or guaranteed by the U.S. government, such as Treasury bonds and bills, as well as mortgage- and other asset-backed securities backed by the government. These funds may also invest in bonds issued by government-sponsored enterprises, such as Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac, that are not explicitly backed by the U.S. government. Because of the high credit quality of their underlying investments, government bond funds will not offer the highest yields, but are a good way to offset some of the credit risk you may have in other parts of your portfolio.
  • Inflation-protected funds. These funds primarily invest in Treasury Inflation Protected Securities (TIPS). TIPS are bonds whose face value adjusts to keep pace with the Consumer Price Index (CPI), making them a good hedge against inflation.
  • Mortgage-backed bond funds. Mortgage-backed bond funds invest in securities backed by pools of mortgages. These securities can be issued by government sponsored enterprises–such as Fannie Mae–or by a bank or other financial institution. Since mortgage-backed bonds are normally considered to have more risk than U.S. Treasury securities, they typically offer higher interest rates. For that reason, mortgage-backed funds could be an attractive investment for those willing to assume a bit more risk in exchange for potentially higher current income.
  • Corporate bond funds.These funds invest in corporate bonds. Corporations issue bonds to expand, modernize, cover expenses and finance other activities. The yield and risk are generally higher than government and most municipal bond funds. Rating agencies help you assess the credit risk by rating the bonds according to each company’s financial profile. Income from corporate bonds is fully taxable.


High-yield bond funds are taxable funds that invest primarily in lower-credit-quality securities. (For more on issuer creditworthiness, see Bond ratings.) These can potentially provide income and total returns higher than investment-grade bond funds. However, these funds could also provide the potential for greater volatility and risk of loss.

High-yield bank loan funds invest primarily in floating rate loans (sometimes called “regulated loans”) issued by non-investment-grade companies. Loans are typically senior to bonds on the balance sheets of those issuers, and their coupons typically float above a common short-term benchmark, such as the London Interbank Offered Rate (LIBOR). This feature may provide some protection against rising rates, but like high-yield bonds, high-yield floating rate securities entail greater risk of loss than investment-grade counterparts.

While investing in high-yield securities isn’t for everybody, these funds may match the additional investment-grade bonds in addition to stock investments on your portfolio. As high return doesn’t necessarily proceed in lock step with investment-grade stocks or bonds, adding this riskier asset category might help diversify your portfolio and potentially enhance its general risk/return profile.

But remember the benefits, like the bigger returns and come at a price. As the securities at high-yield portfolios might be issued with companies whose balance sheets are less robust or from states not to a strong financial foundation, the interest rates and also the main might be in an increased risk, which might potentially cause greater volatility and potential investment losses. As a result of most these facets,based upon your own investment objectives,high-yield bail capital might well not be appropriate at may or might just be right for a part of one’s fixed income portfolio.


Multisector funds purchase lots of diverse sorts of taxable bonds, together with all the portfolios varying by credit score quality, moderate adulthood, and typical duration. Therefore any multisector fund may support Treasury, corporate, and high-yield bonds. A number of those have a lot bigger allocation–35 percent to 65 percent –in high risk bonds like high-yield municipal and corporate bonds, and bonds in emerging markets. These funds might be very good option for investors that are trying to find a single bond finance to symbolize the widest feasible diversification.

Some multisector funds are all dedicated to a certain time horizon. For example, shortterm multisector funds have a tendency to purchase longer stable, shorter-term securities, for example as for instance U.S. Treasuries and agency bonds, and investment-grade company bonds. In substitution for increased equilibrium, yields are normally less than ordinary, so that the bonds have a tendency to be insulated from changes in interest prices. Funds that are devoted to the longer-term could put money into a wider combination of securities issued by changing corporate and government entities both at the U.S. and over seas. The typical maturities are far more, meaning that the worth of those funds will fluctuate more in response to fluctuations in interest prices.


Investors in high tax brackets who would like to create profits at a tax-efficient manner may possibly gain from municipal bond funds. When these funds can offer lower returns, the income created by the bonds from the portfolio is ordinarily free of national taxation. Additionally, some funds invest in securities backed by projects in states that are specific, therefore based upon the respective investor’s condition of residence, the income could be liberated of local and state taxation too. Generally, due to thei
r inherent tax-advantage, municipal bond funds aren’t meant for retirement or alternative accounts. Perhaps not many income from municipal bond capital is taxfree, though. Some interest income could be subject to the Alternative Minimum Tax. And whenever a fund sells a number of its inherent bonds, then it can bring in a supply that finance shareholders can owe taxation on. Once you exchange or sell shares of a fund, which may also bring about a capital gain or a loss for state and federal tax purposes.

International and Global

International bond funds invest in a range of non bonds issued by foreign corporations and governments. International bond funds invest in bonds from across the Earth, including bonds issued by U.S. government businesses and agencies. Besides generating income, they also help investors increase by dispersing interest and financial risk over a larger spectrum. International bond funds generally represent a marginally increased risk profile than funds holding bonds issued with the U.S. government and U.S. corporations, however they are also able to play a part in tackling a number of their danger related to equity investing.